JLPT N3. Used in both conversation and writing depending on the usage.

よる is a grammatically versatile verb that means “according to”. It was introduced very briefly here when we met だそうだ。

According to the Nikkei, that company is the target of a takeover.

The weather forecast said it would rain.

When connected to a noun is best translates as “as a result of”.

I was two hours late because of the traffic accident.

The literal translation: “By means of the effect according to the traffic accident I was late for as much as two hours”.

It’s worth remembering that we don’t have to useによる in the above sentence. の instead would also be perfectly natural.

I was two hours late because of the traffic accident.

Suffer stress as a result of several weeks of late nights at work.

And used with the te form it is usually translated as “depending on”. Note that I’m giving these translations because they are more natural in English, but “according to” would logically fit into all of these sentences.

The climate is different depending on the season.

Language is different depending on the country.

Matriculation is determined by the results of the entrance examination.

One slight variation of the above the following:


We use this structure to state a possible result in certain cases.

There are cases in which we will cancel the event due to bad weather.

Used in place of に with the passive, によって has a more formal ring and so would normally be used only in writing.

Otsuka-san was selected by the committee.

Otsuka-san was selected by the committee.

America was discovered by Columbus

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