The grammar introduced below lets us say things like, “A is not as good as B”. The noun ほど can directly follow other nouns and verbs. You can think of ほど as the opposite of より. Both let us say the same thing if we reverse the logic.

今日きょう昨日きのうよりあたたかい。
Today is warmer than yesterday.
今日きょう昨日きのうほどさむくない。
Today is not as cold as yesterday.
家族かぞくほど大切たいせつなものはない。
There is nothing as important as family.
今日きょうはやることがやまほどあります。
Today I have a ton of things to do [as much as a mountain].

It often helps to think of ほど as meaning “to the extent”.

姫路城ひめじじょうはびっくりするほどうつくしい。
Himeji Castle is so beautiful you will be surprised.

A more literally translation: “To the extent that you will be surprised, Himeji Castle is beautiful”.

In fact, ぐらい and ほど can often be used interchangeably. Grammatically they require the same treatment, but in terms of nuance ほど is more emphatic.

今年ことしは5キロぐらいふとった。
I’ve put on about 10kg this year.
今年ことしは5キロほどふとった。
I’ve put on as much as 10kg this year.
かれまよわないでフェラーリでもえるほどのお金持かねもちだよ。
He has so much money that he could even buy a Ferrari without deliberation.
会社かいしゃ倒産とうさんするほど状況じょうきょうでもある。
It’s a situation that could even mean the bankruptcy of the company.
かぞれないほどひとがいました。
There were more people than you can count.
ぬかとおもったほどいたかった。
It hurt so much I thought I was going to die.

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