Photography

Aberrations: Spherical & Chromatic

Aberrations are imperfections in the optics of the camera lens and result in image deterioration. Different lenses will be affected by aberrations to...

Autofocus: Phase & Contrast Detection

There are two main types of autofocus—phase detection and contrast detection. Generally speaking, phase detection is used in DSLRs whilst contrast...

Binary

Binary code is simply a string of 0’s and 1’s. The number of ‘bits’ represent the number of possible slots for the 0’s or the 1’s. For instance, 3...

Bit Depth & Image Posterization

The bit depth of an image determines how many unique colours are available to create the image (even if the image does then not utilise all these...

Camera Settings

Once you’re familiar with the exposure triangle, you’re ready to switch out of Auto mode. No matter what brand of camera you own, you should be able...

Colour Temperature & White Balance

Colour temperature is an important aspect of photography in ensuring accurate colour reproduction in a scene. Incorrectly setting the colour...

Crop Factor & Sensor Size

With 35mm film cameras, the “sensor” size was the size of the film negative itself—36 x 24mm (incidentally, the 35mm is the width of the film strip...

Depth of Focus

Depth of field refers to the distance behind and in front of the point of focus that appears acceptably sharp. This distance is inversely...

Diffraction in Camera Lenses

The effects of diffraction can be seen in the right-hand image below (point of focus was identical in all shots). Here we see that, relative to ƒ/8...

Dynamic Range & Clipping

The dynamic range of a camera (or printer, or monitor) is the ratio between the minimum and maximum light intensities observed. For digital cameras...

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The visible spectrum represents only a tiny proportion of the entire electromagnetic spectrum. There are three important properties of...

Exposing to the Right

Exposing to the right (“ETTR”) is, in some circles, a pretty contentious issue—in part because there have been a number of slightly misleading...

Extenders & Teleconverters

Teleconverters or Extenders are attachments placed between the camera and lens that increase the focal length of the lens by a given factor. A 1.4x...

Filters: Advancing Your Photography

Filters are pieces of glass or plastic that are inserted in front of the lens to produce photographic effects that are often impossible to re-create...

Histograms in Photography

The histogram is one of the most under-utilised photographic tools. It shows the relative distribution of tonal values in the image from black on the...

Image Stabilization: Lens & Sensor

Image stabilization in a wider sense simply refers to the methods or techniques applied to still the camera during shooting for sharper...

Live View: Why It Matters

Live View or Live Preview is a function on just about all modern DSLRs and mirrorless cameras which lets you view the final image on the the camera’s...

Metering in Photography

First of all, we need to make a clear distinction between reflected and incident light, which is best done by a diagram. Essentially, incident light...

Metering Modes

There can be up to four metering settings in DSLRs: Evaluative, Centre-Weighted, Partial, and Spot. Below are the four diagrams that represent each...

Mirror Lock-up

Mirror lock up is feature on most higher end DLSRs to reduce (minor) vibrations produced when the mirror flips up to allow light to pass onto the...

MTF Curves Explained

Modulation Transfer Function curves are helpful indicators of the performance of a lens. Seen for the first time MTF curves are very far from...

Noise in Digital Photography

In digital photography noise is typically associated with the mottled image we get when taking shots in the low light with a high ISO. Noise was an...

Understanding Gamma in Photography

Gamma—or more precisely, gamma-correction—simply refers to the operation to encode the linear values the camera records into a non-linear...

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